Forgotten Past

A look on ancient History, Language and Architecture


Climatic changes

Doç. Dr. Haluk BERKMEN

  Several tribes of the ancient Uighur people, living in Central Asia, had to leave the region due to drastic climatic changes. The climate of the northern hemisphere has been alternating periodically during the last 20,000 years. The graph below shows this periodical alteration (1).

  We see that the average fluctuation of 6 degrees Centigrade can result in major climatic changes. The red line indicates the end of the ice age, which can be estimated to be around 16,000 years BP. Another cold period happened about 11,000 years ago. Nowadays we are in the global warming period. The present melting of the polar ice sheet may be partly related to this raise in global temperature.

  There has been a warming period between 16,000 to 14,000 years BP. During this period large lakes and internal sees formed in the central-west parts of Asia. But another cold spell swept these regions around 11,000 years BP. As a result of such climatic changes, rivers and lakes retreated to leave their place to semi-desert taiga, swamp and tundra. This situation was mentioned in the first chapter, The Uighur Empire. As a result of these drastic climatic changes several waves of migrations happened out of Central Asia. The new geological epoch, which started about 10,000 years BP, is defined as The Holocene.

  The ancient topography of west-central Asia is shown in the left side of the map above (2). There were many lakes and even huge internal sees in this region. The Black Sea had a connection to these internal lakes. This map is also supporting William Ryan and Walter Pitman (Chapter 1, Ref: 4) who claim that a flood came from the west into these regions.

  Most of the internal lakes and rivers are dried-up nowadays and only the Aral and the Balkash lakes as well as some large rivers are left behind. The name of this region was Oq-Uruq (shown on the map) in the early times and today it is Okruk. Present day Okruk region is shown in red in the small map of Russia. The adjacent region is shown in yellow, where the Ob River flows. The Aral Lake is shown on the lower-left side of the map on the right hand side.

  Oq-uruq (Okh-urugu) means “the Ok settlement” (see The Asiatic Scythians) and the Ob River was probably called Ok. The present name “Ob” is the result of a linguistic shift from a velar “k” to a labial “b”. The people living in these regions speak the Ob-Ugric languages, which belong to the Finno-Ugric and Ural-Altaic language groups. The name Ural stems from the Ural Mountains, which are considered to form the natural boundary between Asia and Europe. We see that the name of these mountains is formed of Ur, being the ancient word for “settle” and Al, meaning “take” in Turkish. 

  The ancient vast Ok-Uruk region is split into small autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs. Oblast is the Russian word standing for “area”, “district” or “region”. The people in the Okruk region call themselves the Khant and the Mans. The name Khant is probably related to Khang, which is the title given to all Eurasian rulers. We find the following titles in Eurasian:

KHANG: Early title for “ruler” in the proto-language.

KAM: Central-Asiatic spiritual leader and Shaman person.

KAGAN: Ancient Turkish and Mongol ruler.

HAKAN: Turkish ruler of the Ottoman Empire.

HUANG: Title of the Chinese emperor.

WANG: King of the Chinese kingdom.

TARKAN: Central-Asiatic and ancient Bulgarian ruler. Also found in Hittite.

KUNG: King in Swedish.

KÖNÝG: King in German

And finally KÝNG in English.

  Other forms are Kaiser, from prehistoric Germanic and Caesar in Latin, both coming from Ok-As-Er in the proto-language. We also find the word “Kami” in Japanese meaning “god”. This word is, most probably, related to Kam, since the Kam could perform spiritual flights and talk to the gods. A further indication exists in the Japanese word “ookami” meaning “wolf” but also “sacred deity”, since “oo” means “sacred” and the wolf was also considered to be sacred by Central-Asiatic people.

  It is interesting to note that “oo”, which is an exclamation sound of veneration uttered in front of superior and important persons or situations, found its way as “awe” in English, “haut” in French (meaning “high”) and “haupt” in German. The “h” in French is aspirated and is not pronounced. There may or may not be a direct link between the Japanese “oo” and the French “haut”, but the similarity in the sound and in the meaning has its origins in the proto-language (see Chapter 2, Diversification of Languages).

  The wolf was a holy symbol not only for the Japanese people but also for the Turkic and Germanic people too. Some Turkic nations adopted the wolf as their holy totem animal because of its independent character -refusing to be tamed- and its ability to hunt in packs. On a stone inscription found in central Asia the following sentence can be read in ancient Turkish (3):

“Because God gave power to my father the Kagan his army was like hunting wolves

  There is here a clear respect for the wolf as being an animal of power but also as an animal having a social organization and knowing how to hunt as a group. This aspect of the wolf was so much venerated that the wolf-head symbol has been selected to appear on certain Turkic flags. We see the Göktürk flag below.


  According to ancient Teutonic beliefs the Germanic people were led by a wolf named Wolfgang, which in German means "The walking wolf". "gang" stands for "going", an indication for the Shaman showing the way and leading the tribe. The same figure is found in the Turkish mythology where a female wolf named “Asena” (As-ana meaning “mother of the As people”) leads the tribe out of a mountainous region named Oetueken. Such cultural correlations are indications of common ancestral links.


(1)   Foraminiferal Evidence of Younger Dryas Age Cooling on the British Colombia Shelf. Geographie et Quaternaire, Patterson et al. 1995, Volume 49, No: 3, page 409
   The map of ancient Okruk is drawn by Kâzým Mirþan, an independent researcher of the ancient proto-language. (Courtesy of Turgay Tüfekçioðlu).
   Inscribed on the east side of the Bilge Kagan stele found in the Orhun valley. These inscriptions, written in an ancient Turkish alphabet were first read by Wilhelm Thomsen, a Danish scholar.

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